Navigating the Legislative Process

Connecticut’s State Capitol and Legislative Office Building are now fully open after closing for COVID-19. The legislature is in session. Committees are meeting in person but will have a remote option for public testimony. Check the webpage or the Legislative Bulletin for details on attending meetings virtually.

People who love the law or good sausage should never watch either being made.

-- German Chancellor Otto von Bismark, 1815 – 1898

There are some problems that only a change in statute can fix. Many changes in the law happen because one concerned, committed, and patient citizen worked the system to make a positive change. If you are right about the issue, you have credible information to back it up, and you have the tools – it is not hard at all. It may take years, especially if your issue is large, costly or controversial, but it happens all the time.

Laws can also serve to raise awareness about a problem. For example, a law cannot require that everyone become more sensitive and supportive of diversity in the workplace, but it can make sexual harassment illegal or offer diversity training for workers.

Links to articles with specific tools can be found at the end of this page, but first, a few things to remember.


It takes time to change a law or get a new one passed. Most of the time, that is a comforting truth. By and large, things in Connecticut work pretty well. If it’s not broken, don’t fix it. Any change in the rules we live by should be thoughtfully considered, receive lots of public input, and be fine-tuned before it is passed. The law of unintended consequences is more powerful than any state or federal statute.

Build relationships

If you do this right, this will be the beginning of a long-term relationship. Even if you win this one vote this one time, chances are you (or someone else on your issue) will be back again in the future. Legislators and staff are eager to get your input. Don’t burn bridges. Be as helpful as possible. Use all your listening skills. You will pass more bills with honey than with vinegar.


Everyone sees the world through the lens of his or her own experiences and biases. Legislators are no different. While your issue is your first priority, it may not be theirs. You have to meet people where they are. If a legislator votes for your bill because it saves money (his reason), not because it improves the health of children (your reason) – no matter. It’s still a yes vote.

A long time staffer from another state tells a story about a Senator he knew. She was a retired teacher and a dedicated advocate for teachers. This was the reason she ran for public office. She assessed everything that came before her in that light. Testifying or lobbying on any bill on any subject, she invariably asked how it would affect teachers. The bill might be about banking or homelessness, it didn’t matter, she still wanted to know how it affected teachers. Advocates who were ready for the question and had a passable answer, got her vote.

Understand and respect the system

  • Learn the history of your issue - If what you are asking for has been tried and failed (or they think they tried it), you need to know that and address it. How are conditions different now? How could it be implemented differently to avoid past failure?
  • Consider the prevailing climate - In a time of severe budget deficits, expensive programs are unlikely to pass. Election years have their own karma.
  • Respect the expertise of others - You'd be wise to take the advice of advocates and lobbyists with years of experience. The legislative process is always changing but there are constants. It doesn't always work the way you learned in civics class.

Choose your lobbying target(s) well

Too many of us spend our time preaching to the choir - lobbying our friends who already agree with our position. Sometimes we spend precious resources lobbying legislators who aren't on the relevant committee.

Give solutions when possible

It is hard to argue for the status quo. Don't just be a critic, offer an answer. Show how your idea will address the problem. It is best if your solution has no costs or you can make a case for cost effectiveness. For help on that, go to Research and Data.

Be respectful of everyone

It’s amazing how many people forget this. Write thank you notes. Understand that a staffer who is not letting you in to meet with a legislator without an appointment or getting you exactly the document you want right now, is just doing their job.

Related articles

Those are some general themes; more can be found in Tips No Advocate Should Forget and Classic Advocate Mistakes.

To understand the formal legislative process, go to How a Bill Becomes a Law.

To find and reach out to policymakers, go to Engaging Policymakers.

You will need a champion to shepherd your cause from the inside and guide you through the process. Go to Supporting Your Champion.

Go to Legislators - Who are they? to better understand the realities of the office.

Go to The Importance of Legislative Staff to learn about the best kept secret in legislative effectiveness.

For help in joining your voice with others, go to Collaborations and Coalitions.

If you are lucky enough to have professional help, go to Working with a lobbyist.

And when you’ve won, or even if you didn’t, go to Celebrations.

For specific tools, go to:
Writing to policymakers
Calling a policymaker
Visiting with a policymaker
How to testify at a public hearing
Fact sheets and alerts
Freedom of Information
How to work with political campaigns
Navigating the Legislative Office Building and Capitol


Contacting your legislator? Cite your sources – if you want them to listen to you, from The Conversation

Your Voice Matters, from the Connecticut General Assembly

Directions to the CT State Capitol and Legislative Office Building

CT General Assembly calendar

Glossary of legislative terms

Capitol picture book


CT-N legislative toolbox

How a bill becomes a law, CT Attorney General’s Office

How a bill becomes a law in Connecticut -- From the CT League of Women Voters

Advocacy Amplified: How Nonprofits Can Garner State Legislative Support for Their Causes, from Blue Avocado

Advocacy Guide from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development – about educational advocacy but the principles apply broadly

Families USA state health advocacy toolkit

Speak Up: Tips on Advocacy for Publicly Funded Nonprofits, Center for an Urban Future

Libertarian, gerrymandering, and 50 other political terms you should know, Stacker

Be patient, you are building relationships for the future